- To avoid plagiarizing you must give a correct reference to the used source in your text.
- A correct reference is given through
(a) an indication in the text next to the re-used material, an in-text citation.
(b) in a reference list at the end of the document presents all the references you have used in your text.
- In order to know how to write correct references, you need to use a reference style.
- There are many different referencing styles, e.g. Oxford, Harvard and Vancouver. They describe, in different ways, how correct references should be created. For example what information about the source (author, title, publication year etc.) that should be included in the reference. Simply put, there are three types of reference styles, those who use, footnotes, author & publication year or numbers.
- Since how to write a correct reference depends on the reference style you use. It´s therefore important with consistent use of the same reference style.
- The type of reference style used can vary between different programs at Linköping University. To know which style to use, visit the course website for instructions or contact your teacher or supervisor.
- If a fact is considered to be well-known within the subject area that you are writing, then it is not necessary to give reference to a source. An example is that the capital of Sweden is Stockholm or that Olof Palme was murdered in 1986. What is "well-known" varies to a degree between different subject areas. General advice, however, if you are not sure about "well-known", then give a reference.
- You must clearly state which ideas that are not yours and always give reference to ideas from studies by other authors.
Examples using the common referencing systems
Examples of references in NoPlagiat will primarily be based on the instructions (in Swedish) from the Guide to the Harvard system created at the University of Borås. Minor adaptions to the English language has been taken from the Swinburne Harvard complete guide created at the Swinburne University of Technology.
Some examples of references according to the Oxford and Vancouver styles will also be given to highlight the differences between the various reference styles.
For more information visit Linköping University Library's web page about different reference styles.
Vancouver (number system)
- In your text, directly following the re-used material, give a number in parentheses. Numbers are assigned in increasing order for each new reference:
Every year, 300–500 million clinical episodes of malaria occur, resulting in 2 million deaths (1). A vast majority of these take place in sub-Saharan Africa, and many involve children aged <5 years, among whom estimates of malaria-related mortality range from 541,494 to 1,295,806 deaths each year (2,3,4).
1 Björk, B. C., Welling, P., Laakso, M., Majlender, P., Hedlund, T., & Gudnason, G. (2010). Open Access To The Scientific Journal Literature: Situation 2009. PLoS ONE, 5(6). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011273.
2 Gargouri, Y., Larivière, V. Gingras, Y. and Harnad, S. (2012). Green and Gold Open Access Percentages and Growth, by Field. In Archambault, É, Gingras, Y. and Larivière. V. (2012). Proceedings of 17th International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators, Montréal: Science-Metrix and OST