Referencing

To avoid plagiarizing you must give a correct reference to the used source in your text. A complete reference consists of:

  1. a reference in continuous text in direct connection with what you wrote.
  2. a reference list at the end of the document that presents all references used in the text.

You can use common knowledge without referring to a source. It refers to knowledge that many people know or easily find in a general encyclopedia. An example of the latter is that the Eiffel Tower is located in Paris or that the assault against the World Trade Center in New York took place on 11/9 2001. What can be considered "widely known" varies somewhat between different subject areas. One guideline is that if you are uncertain, you are referring.

In order to know how to write correct references, one need to use a reference style. There are a variety of reference styles. Common to them is that they describe how to write references, i.e. what information about the used source to be included in and the order in which the information should be displayed. Simply put, there are three variants of reference styles; Those who use footnotes, authors-years, or numbers.

It is important to use the same reference style consistently when setting references in its text.

The reference style used may vary between different courses on LiU. Therefore always consult the course website for instructions or contact the teacher.

It is important to be clear when stating which thoughts are not your own and always referring to ideas from studies conducted by other authors.

Examples of correct references

Author - Year (Harvard, APA) in the text sets the reference with the author name and publication year in brackets

“These various factors constitute the framework for the defining principles and themes of the horror genre in the modern era” (Wells 2000, p. 6).

The author name can also be entered directly in the text, then only the year is given in brackets

According to Wells “these various factors constitute the framework for the defining principles and themes of the horror genre in the modern era” (2000, p. 6).

Footnotes (Oxford, Chicago) reference are marked with a superscript number in the text and are listed in a footer at the bottom of the page

These various factors constitute the framework for the defining principles and themes of the horror genre in the modern era1.

Numbers (Vancouver) the reference is marked in the text with a number in brackets referring to the same number in the reference list at the end of the document

These various factors constitute the framework for the defining principles and themes of the horror genre in the modern (1).

 


1. Wells, P. (2000), The horror genre: From Beelzebub to Blair Witch. p. 10. London: Wallflower.